MADRID — Mexico’s president, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, surely knew that he was wading into fraught territory when he wrote to King Felipe VI of Spain and Pope Francis with a request rooted in history.
As the 500th anniversary of the 1521 Spanish conquest of the Aztecs nears, Mr. López Obrador proposed that the two men ask forgiveness for the abuses inflicted on the indigenous peoples of Mexico.
What he may not have expected was the blowback his proposal received — on both sides of the Atlantic.
In Spain, the Socialist government of Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez rejected the idea. Foreign Minister Josep Borrell said it was “weird to receive now this request for an apology for events that occurred 500 years ago.”
On the Spanish right, the response was even chillier.
Campaigning ahead of next month’s general election, Pablo Casado, the leader of the conservative Popular Party, described the Mexican demand as an affront to the Spanish people. Spain, he said, should instead celebrate “with pride” its historical role in Mexico, “the way great nations do it, those that have contributed to the discovery of other people.”
The history of modern Mexico goes back to 1519, when the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés disembarked on the Gulf Coast and began his march toward the great Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán. It fell two years later.
The indigenous peoples did not fall prey only to the brutality and subjugation of the conquerors. They were also decimated by European diseases, particularly smallpox.
Mr. López Obrador wrote the letters, he said on Monday, in the spirit of reconciliation ahead of the commemoration of the conquest and the 200th anniversary of the year Mexico achieved independence from Spain.
Speaking at an event to commemorate one of the first battles that Cortés fought — against the Chontal Maya — Mr. López Obrador said he had asked Spain to acknowledge the brutality of the conquest so that “together we can chronicle what happened after the military invasion.”
“It wasn’t just about the encounter of two cultures,” Mr. López Obrador said. “It was an invasion. Thousands of people were murdered during that period. One culture, one civilization, was imposed upon another to the point that the temples — the Catholic churches were built on top of the ancient pre-Hispanic temples.”
But what caught the attention of his many critics in Mexico was his call for an apology.
“The Spaniards who stayed in Spain bear no responsibility for what happened here 500 years ago,” wrote one columnist, Sergio Sarmiento.
Some noted that Cortés conquered the Aztecs in alliance with other indigenous communities, raising a question about whether Spain was the only one at fault.
“Do we properly know who is ‘us’ and who is ‘them’?” wrote Jorge G. Castañeda, a former foreign minister. “Is this a Pandora’s box we want to open? Or is it pure demagogy?”
Mr. López Obrador was accused of trying to create a distraction to divert attention from Mexico’s problems, including brutal gang violence and a slowing economy.
One reporter asked the president why he was not demanding that France and the United States, which also invaded Mexico, apologize as well. And if Spain should apologize, critics said, should Mexico not apologize as well for its treatment of indigenous groups since independence?
Mr. López Obrador said he planned to do that.
In Spain, Mr. Borrell made a similar argument.
Could Spain ask France to apologize for crimes committed during the Napoleonic wars, he asked, when the French invaded the Iberian Peninsula? Could France itself ask for an apology from Italy for the way the Romans conquered the Gauls under Julius Caesar?
Still, the precedent for historical reckoning is growing, and one moment in particular stands out. In 2015, Pope Francis addressed an audience of farmers, trash pickers and indigenous people in Bolivia and asked for forgiveness.
“I say this to you with regret: Many grave sins were committed against the native people of America in the name of God,” the pope said. “I humbly ask forgiveness, not only for the offense of the church herself, but also for crimes committed against the native peoples during the so-called conquest of America.”
And last November, Canada’s prime minister, Justin Trudeau, apologized on behalf of his nation for the abuse of indigenous people there. Mr. Trudeau also apologized for Canada’s decision not to allow Jews who were fleeing Nazism to disembark from a ship in 1939.
Last September, President Emmanuel Macron of France apologized for the widespread usage of torture by the French army in Algeria, and in particular for the killing of an antiwar intellectual, Maurice Audin, in 1957.
All these apologies notwithstanding, Mr. López Obrador’s demand touched a raw nerve in Spain, perhaps because it comes at a time of renewed nationalism and a secessionist challenge in Catalonia.
Some right-wing Spanish politicians warned the Socialist government against going soft on Mexico’s left-wing president.
Albert Rivera, the leader of Ciudadanos, said Mr. López Obrador’s demand amounted to “an intolerable offense to the Spanish people.”
A politician from the Popular Party, Rafael Hernando, went a step farther. “We Spaniards went there and ended the power of tribes that assassinated their neighbors with cruelty and fury,” he said on Twitter.
Spain’s far-left and third-largest party, Podemos, sided with Mexico’s president and promised to offer restoration to victims of colonialism if elected. Mr. López Obrador is “very right to demand that the king ask for forgiveness for the abuses of the conquest,” Ione Belarra, a Podemos politician, said on Twitter.
Whatever Mr. López Obrador’s political intent, his call exposed the contradictions of Mexico’s identity.
While Mexico officially celebrates the idea of mestizaje — a new race formed from the union of the European colonizers and the indigenous peoples they conquered — modern Mexico has done little to right the wrongs inherited by the brutal history of conquest. To this day, Mexico’s upper classes are predominantly white and its indigenous communities continue to suffer discrimination.
Mr. López Obrador has paid tribute to indigenous cultures. His many critics may argue that his devotion to them is a stunt, but he is the first modern Mexican president who has worked directly with people in indigenous communities.
Despite the blowback that followed his demand for an apology, Mr. López Obrador has defended his letter as necessary. And he said there was no risk of hurting relations with Spain. Indeed, Mr. López Obrador has a strong connection to that country.
In January, Mr. Sánchez, the Spanish prime minister, was the first foreign leader to visit Mexico after Mr. López Obrador took office. Among his gestures of friendship was a gift to the new Mexican president: the birth certificate of one José Obrador, born in 1893 in the Spanish region of Cantabria.
In 1917, the Spaniard did what generations of Spaniards had done before him. He went to seek his fortune in Mexico. A century later that immigrant’s grandson, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, was elected president.B:
排列三开奖结果直播【作】【为】【土】【行】【宗】【仅】【有】【的】【金】【丹】【宗】【师】，【康】【胖】【子】【虽】【然】【名】【气】【不】【大】，【一】【身】【本】【领】【却】【也】【有】【其】【独】【到】【之】【处】。 【尤】【其】【是】【一】【门】【土】【遁】【之】【术】，【堪】【称】【神】【出】【鬼】【没】、【入】【地】【无】【踪】，【遁】【速】【也】【是】【惊】【人】。 【若】【非】【是】【因】【为】【一】【时】【大】【意】，【怕】【也】【不】【会】【命】【丧】【孙】【恒】【之】【手】。 【至】【于】【天】【璇】【神】【砂】【的】【操】【控】【之】【法】，【自】【然】【也】【刻】【在】【他】【的】【记】【忆】【里】。 【此】【物】【乃】【是】【以】【一】【种】【天】【外】【奇】【珍】，【经】【由】【土】【行】【宗】【秘】【法】【历】
【看】【到】【罗】【森】【娘】【就】【将】【踏】【上】100【阶】【的】【台】【阶】【上】【面】，【千】【叶】【不】【由】【自】【主】【的】【就】【走】【前】【了】【一】【步】！ 【呛】【啷】！ 【无】【情】【剑】【的】【长】【剑】【微】【微】【晃】【悠】【了】【一】【下】，【发】【出】【了】【一】【声】【低】【吟】。 “【在】【这】【里】【呆】【着】！” 【无】【情】【剑】【看】【过】【来】【的】【眼】【神】【只】【有】【冰】【冷】【与】【杀】【气】！ 【千】【叶】【知】【道】【自】【己】【若】【是】【坚】【持】【上】【前】，【这】【厮】【必】【然】【会】【直】【接】【将】【自】【己】【大】【卸】【八】【块】【的】。 【他】【点】【点】【头】，【然】【后】【听】【话】【的】【站】【住】【了】
【正】【在】【这】【个】【时】【候】，【浅】【九】【突】【然】【看】【见】【了】【一】【扇】【打】【开】【的】【门】，【门】【里】【有】【很】【多】【人】【出】【来】，【也】【有】【很】【多】【在】【门】【外】【的】【人】【进】【去】，【因】【为】【身】【高】，【浅】【九】【看】【不】【到】【门】【的】【上】【面】【写】【着】【什】【么】，【但】【是】【结】【合】【自】【己】【所】【看】【到】【的】【和】【自】【己】【以】【前】【所】【经】【历】【的】，【这】【不】【就】【是】【电】【梯】【吗】？ 【浅】【九】【顿】【时】【一】【阵】【欣】【喜】，【有】【救】【了】！【这】【电】【梯】【来】【的】【真】【是】【时】【候】！ 【心】【里】【这】【么】【想】，【浅】【九】【连】【忙】【跑】【了】【过】【去】，【随】【着】【高】【高】【大】【大】排列三开奖结果直播【这】【个】【公】【国】【偏】【远】【小】【镇】【的】【冬】【夜】【格】【外】【得】【明】【朗】。 【抬】【头】【就】【能】【看】【见】【漫】【天】【的】【繁】【星】【清】【晰】【地】【在】【头】【顶】【闪】【耀】，【似】【乎】【伸】【手】【就】【能】【碰】【到】。 【有】【三】【个】【人】【影】【摇】【摇】【晃】【晃】【地】【走】【在】【起】【伏】【的】【山】【坡】【上】，【看】【他】【们】【的】【方】【向】【正】【是】【前】【往】【此】【刻】【灯】【火】【通】【明】【的】【小】【镇】。 【这】【三】【人】【自】【然】【就】【是】【安】【娜】、【巴】【斯】【特】【的】【和】【卡】【洛】【琳】。 【安】【娜】【走】【在】【前】【头】，【她】【后】【面】【紧】【紧】【跟】【着】【的】【是】【巴】【斯】【特】，【原】【本】【这】【小】【家】
【顾】【总】【早】【就】【在】【大】【家】【玩】【得】【高】【兴】【的】【时】【候】【离】【开】【了】，【一】【般】【在】【这】【种】【聚】【会】【里】【面】，【如】【果】【老】【板】【全】【程】【参】【与】【的】【话】，【会】【让】【同】【事】【们】【拘】【束】【放】【不】【开】，【而】【且】【也】【有】【损】【自】【己】【在】【公】【司】【中】【的】【威】【严】。 【所】【以】【顾】【总】【便】【离】【开】【了】，【但】【是】【席】【城】【却】【不】【能】【走】，【他】【深】【知】【自】【己】【的】【处】【境】【和】【地】【位】，【他】【不】【得】【不】【举】【起】【杯】【子】【准】【备】【将】【里】【面】【的】【酒】【灌】【进】【去】，【尽】【管】【胃】【里】【已】【经】【非】【常】【的】【不】【舒】【服】【了】。 【这】【时】【候】【在】【一】
【鎏】【金】【螳】【螂】【与】【血】【蝙】【蝠】【之】【间】【的】【形】【势】【相】【互】【转】【变】。 【鎏】【金】【螳】【螂】【变】【为】【躲】【闪】【的】【一】【方】，【而】【血】【蝙】【蝠】【则】【在】【疯】【狂】【进】【攻】。 【将】【对】【将】，【王】【对】【王】。 【但】【两】【人】【的】【另】【外】【两】【只】【御】【兽】【却】【非】【如】【此】。 【两】【人】【另】【外】【的】【两】【只】【御】【兽】【并】【没】【有】【各】【自】【为】【战】，【而】【是】【两】【只】【两】【只】【的】【相】【互】【配】【合】【在】【了】【一】【起】，【相】【互】【攻】【伐】【偷】【袭】。 【使】【得】【四】【只】【御】【兽】【可】【以】【说】【是】【牢】【牢】【的】【纠】【缠】【在】【了】【一】【起】。 【引】
【慕】【容】【嫣】【没】【想】【到】，【叶】【云】【竟】【然】【能】【够】【当】【场】【找】【出】【她】【所】【有】【的】【案】【例】。 【而】【且】【每】【一】【个】【项】【目】，【都】【那】【么】【详】【细】。 【就】【算】【让】【专】【门】【的】【秘】【书】【来】【干】【这】【事】，【也】【没】【有】【这】【么】【快】【呀】！ 【毕】【竟】，【她】【还】【没】【想】【到】，【需】【要】【靠】【自】【己】【的】【这】【些】【案】【例】，【才】【能】【够】【说】【服】【欧】【文】【他】【们】。 【叶】【云】【看】【到】【小】【妮】【子】【眸】【子】【里】【的】【惊】【喜】【和】【讶】【然】，【不】【由】【得】【笑】【了】【笑】，【贴】【在】【她】【耳】【边】【说】【道】： “【我】【怕】【这】【里】【有】